Lamborghini Gallardo

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(from Lamborghini) Ferruccio Lamborghini - born under the zodiac sign of Taurus - when he founded the famous super car company, that since then bears his name, gave to it the symbol of the fighting bull. Later, when the Miura was introduced, he named the car after a famous bull's race, and this practice became a tradition for the House of the Bull. Honouring this tradition, the Management of Automobili Lamborghini have decided to baptize their latest model with the name of a fighting bull's breed: the Gallardo (pron.: ga:yàrdo). Most people probably are not aware that the origins of the fighting bull proceed from five main breeds, that is: Cabrera, Navarra, Vasqueña, Vistahermosa and Gallardo. Today, ninety percent of the fighting bull breeds proceed from Vistahermosa branch, with some exceptions, such as the Miura race - that comes from the Navarro - which is today the only breeding stock that maintains a pure origin. Another exception is the breeding race of "Partido de Resina" - that was called once of "Pablo Romero"-, that comes from the Gallardo race. Historically, these bulls have enjoyed a well-deserved fame of being the most beautiful specimen within the race.

Designed to redefine its segment as the best high performance sports car and driving behaviour that fits its driver in every situation. The Gallardo is the synthesis of a true sports car that can be used on an every day basis. While matching these two apparently conflicting objectives, the guideline for Lamborghini engineers has been to fulfill the necessary comfort requirements without any compromise in the performances expected of a true Lamborghini car. The choices for engine, transmission, space frame and body, suspensions, brakes and electronics are then all in line with such an objective. The result is a compact (length 4.3 m) 2-seater high performance car (maximum speed well over 300 km/h), that can be driven with pleasure both on race tracks and on long distance journeys on country and city roads.

The layout has been conceived to reach the high performance targets, on the basis of the sports-oriented concept for which Lamborghini is well known. The basic characteristics of such a layout are:- mid-rear mounted engine, with the gearbox behind the engine - permanent four-wheel drive system- independent double wishbone suspension system- aluminum space frame- low centre gravity- weight distribution 42front, 58rear- two front mounted water radiators and one side mounted oil cooler- wheelbase 2.560 m, front track 1.622 m, rear track 1.592 m- total length 4.300 m, width 1.900 m, height 1.165Particular attention was paid to achieve the correct weight distribution, true to Lamborghini's engineering tradition. In fact, the chosen weight distribution is the optimal for a sports car, with advantages for traction, braking and handling. The lowering of the centre of gravity has also been a fundamental guideline, which also lead to the engineering decisions for engine and transmission layout.

The Gallardo design vision was initiated in the year 2000. The challenging and simultaneously fascinating task of our designers was to cultivate the attributes from Lamborghini and combine them in an extremely individual packaging. Its design, based on an Italdesign-Giugiaro style proposal was developed by the Lamborghini Centro Stile to incorporate the parameters of our extreme design philosophy. The Gallardo dimensions combined with the competitive performance targets ensure the car an athletic compactness. The long wheelbase complemented by short overhangs dynamise its appearance. It was clad in the typical and unique mono volume proportioning, our heritage initiated by the Countach and integrates the Lamborghini design attributes of purism, athleticism and sharpness. The cab-forward cockpit integrated in the body by a strongly slanted front screen and tensed pillars, the complex surfacing intersected by crisp graphics and its cooling flow oriented detailing evokes as in the Lamborghini tradition in its proportions and formal language a strong aeronautical influence. Starring blade like front light graphics, the front face is orchestrated around the dominant cooling inlets. The scissor door cinematic has been reserved as traditional to the 12-cylinder lineage. The foldable side mirrors slanted forward dynamising the side view are mounted on an evolutive shoulder incorporating air inlets. The flush integration of the door handles emphasize the lateral air intakes and like all details improves the aerodynamic efficiency. The rear lights prolonging the lines of the upper air intakes develop an aerodynamic lip present also on the rotating spoiler, combining once again function and emotion. The wheels, a strong differencing factor in the Lamborghini history develop the traditional round holes design theme interacting them with spokes. From the very beginning and in coherence with the defined layout, the design phase was completely integrated in the project development. Thus, a complete matching between style requirements and functional requirements has been reached, avoiding style elements without functional basis or functional parts with poor visual appearance.

The Lamborghini V10 cylinder DOHC four valve V90 5 liter, 500 Hp, 510 Nm, is the concept solution for the high performance Gallardo. Instead of the more classical choice of a V72, an angle of 90 degrees was preferred in order to limit the height of the engine with advantages in the car layout (e.g. lower engine bonnet and better rear view) and in the lowering of the centre of gravity (i.e. better car dynamic characteristics). Even firing intervals (that ensure the smoothness of the engine) are guaranteed by the adoption of crankpins incorporating an 18-degree offset. A dry sump lubrication system not only achieves the correct lubrication even in extreme dynamic conditions, but also permits the centre of gravity to be lowered further. The torque output is optimized in the full rpm range. In order to achieve such an objective, the charge efficiency was increased at various speeds by a precise utilization of gas dynamic effects that take place in the intake and exhaust system. These effects are managed by the adoption of a variable geometry intake manifold and of a continuously variable valve timing system, both for intake and exhaust. While the variable geometry (which can be defined as "variable length") guarantees the correct base gas dynamic characteristics both at low rpm (long runners) and high rpm (short runners), the variable valve timing system guarantees the most suitable valve opening and closing moments for each rpm.

For instance, the intake valve closing moment is anticipated at low rpm and retarded at high rpm in order to coincide with the positive peaks of the pressure pulsations at the intake valves. Thus, the maximum torque of 510 Nm is reached at 4500 rpm, with 80of this maximum already achieved at only 1500 rpm; conversely, the maximum power is obtained at a much higher speed, i.e. 7800 rpm. The throttle control is performed via a Drive by Wire system, with two electronic throttle bodies. The construction technology is obviously all aluminum.In summary:- concept: V10 90°, 4V, crankpin offset 18°, integrated liners with eutectic alloy- capacity: 5 litre, bore 82.5 mm, stroke 92.8 mm- timing system: DOHC chain driven, continuously Variable inlet and exhaust Valve Timing- inlet system: Variable Geometry- exhaust system: two separated banks with two "5 in 1" exhaust manifolds- ignition system: individual coils directly mounted on each spark plug- engine electronic management: Lamborghini LIE- lubrication system: dry sump- max power 500 hp (368 Kw) at 7800 rpm- max torque 510 Nm at 4500 rpm