(from Ferrari) The race
track has always been the testing ground for the advanced technological
research that later went into Ferrari's road cars. The very first
Ferrari, built in 1947, was a 12-cylinder racing car. From that first
12-cylinder, 126 more were born, destined for both track and road. The
Enzo Ferrari is not only the marque's latest V12, it is also a pinnacle
of excellence drawing on the experience of victories in the last four
years of the Formula 1 World Championship, thus endowed with the very
latest automotive technology.
Company founder Enzo Ferrari always felt that design of the road cars
should stem from the racers. Therefore, it was entirely logical that the
company's latest creation should bear his name. The Enzo, built in
a limited run of 399, is an outstanding expression of the concept of
extreme sportiness, developed for road use, yet epitomizing the most
advanced concepts of Formula 1 racing technology
Ferrari set out to develop the Enzo as an
integrated system designed for extreme performance, in which even the
limits of the performance achievable by the driver were enhanced, thanks
to a man-machine interface typical of Formula 1.
Never before has style been derived so
directly from function as in this model. Pininfarina wanted to create an
uncompromising car that would break away from the approach used for the
GTO, F40 and F50 that preceded it, to develop a new formal language that
looked to the future. The engineers tried to create visual links with
the world of Formula 1, to which the Enzo owes its technology, while
highlighting its compactness and lightness. The result is a complex,
The use of advanced composite materials
for the bodywork, with parts made of sandwich panels of carbon fibre and
Nomex, allowed the designer to structure the bodyshell while keeping the
weight to a minimum, and creating "extreme" stylistic forms.
The front, with its two air intakes for
the radiators and a raised central section, is an interpretation of the
Formula 1 front section with a small pointed, raised nose and
air-intakes under the spoilers in a gull-wing effect. The sides, also
benefit from the use of composites, shaped to optimise air-flow with
respect to internal fluid dynamics. The large spoiler has been
eliminated from the car's rear section which now boasts small
aerodynamic appendages and very efficient ground effects.
In developing the Enzo, Ferrari set itself
two pure performance targets which would represent a milestone for
ultra-fast cars: to increase the grip limit in medium-fast bends by
increasing downforce (lateral dynamics,) while maintaining a very high
top speed, over 350 km/h (longitudinal dynamics.)
This meant that different aerodynamic configurations with contrasting
characteristics had to coexist on the same car. In racing cars,
this problem is solved by developing wings and special aerodynamic
accessories for each circuit. But in the case of the Enzo, for which the
various targets had to coexist in a single aerodynamic configuration, a
concept of active, integrated aerodynamics was developed.
The high downforce configuration was obtained with a basic aerodynamic
set-up developed on the basis of contemporary concepts for the
definition of covered-wheel racing cars combined with the expertise of
Ferrari Gestione Sportiva.
optimal aerodynamic set-up is kept stable by special elastic features of
the car's engineering and by active aerodynamic control.
As the speed increases from low-medium to
high-very high, the engineering ensures that the car takes on the
optimal aerodynamic set-up (maximum downforce obtained with an optimal
load distribution) by varying the rigidity on the basis of ground
clearance. As the speed climbs even higher, this set-up is maintained by
the combined action of the flexible mechanical components and by active
control of the spoilers. At very high speeds, the actively controlled
spoilers (front and rear fins) limit the maximum vertical load, thus
making it possible to keep the car above a set minimum ground clearance.
On the Enzo, the aerodynamic load and balance can be modified on the
road by means of a pair of flaps positioned in the front slides and a
Vehicle Control System
Enzo project is the first example of the complete integration of the
vehicle control systems. Engine, gearbox, suspension, ABS/ASR, and
aerodynamics all interact to optimise the vehicle's performance and
safety. This presupposes an innovative approach to the design of the
control system architecture, and to the development and fine-tuning of
the subsystems on the car. It was made possible by the collaboration and
specialist skills of Gestione Sportiva, and performance of each system
was designed to enhance that of the entire car. The target when defining
the control strategies of each subsystem was therefore the optimal
behaviour of the car. The subsystems that interact are: the engine,
gearbox, suspension, aerodynamics, and the ABS/ASR system. The large
number of systems made it necessary to use special sensors. Management
of the sensors is divided between the various control systems, each of
which shares the relevant information with the rest of the system. The
way the systems interact depends on the driving modes that the driver
can choose from. The Enzo offers several set-ups: Sport, Race, No ASR.
The architecture of the F140 project was
designed to minimize the section of the cables that link the utilities
positioned on the steering wheel, the steering column, the onboard
instruments, and the rest of the car. To achieve this goal, the
architecture was based on a high speed communication line which links
several different control units which pick up the signals "in the
surrounding environment". These signals are transformed into information
which can then only be exchanged through the communication line.
The engine of the Enzo Ferrari (which is
known by its project number F140) is a 12-cylinder aspirated unit in a
65° V, a cylinder capacity of 5,998 cc, with a completely new design
that draws on experience gained in Formula 1, and has a number of unique
technical features. The cylinder head design reveals its Formula 1
origins: the "pentroof-type" combustion chamber, with four valves per
cylinder, plus inlet and exhaust ducts designed to maximise the exhaust
coefficients and combustion speed.
The cylinder case is built of aluminum
with press-fitted sleeves lined with nicasil, with seven main bearings,
and sleeve intervals of 104 mm. The con rods are made of titanium, the
piston design is new, the crankshaft is lighter and the cylinder heads
have four valves with high fluid dynamic efficiency, a new structure to
increase rigidity, and a different oil discharge layout.
The timing gear features four overhead
camshafts, direct valve control, and hydraulic tappets. It is completely
chain-driven, with central transmission on triple gearing. The timing of
the inlet and exhaust manifolds is continuously variable, thanks to the
intervention of four variable advances activated by the engine control
unit throughout the operating range via a high pressure hydraulic
system, with the goal of lowering the noise and enhancing versatility.
The lubrication sump is of the F1
wrapround type, incorporating the main bearings and a specific oil
recovery circuit to increase efficiency.
The variable geometry inlet manifold is
also borrowed from Formula 1, with a system of small telescopic
derivation cones, combined on this V12 application, with variable timing
gear with a continuously variable advance on the four camshafts and a
high pressure control unit.
Electronic engine management is provided
on each row of cylinders by a Bosch Motronic ME7 unit which controls the
PFI multiple injection system, the drive-by-wire throttle valve, and the
single coils on each spark plug. Six knock sensors mounted on the
crankcase guarantee knock control.
The performance goals of the new V12
have been met in full, in order to supply a unique blend of very high
power, generous torque from low speeds and versatility. In spite of the
large capacity of the engine, the applications derived most directly
from Ferrari's Formula 1 experience have made it possible to keep the
specific power of the engine at an extremely high 110 bhp/litre.
F1 Transmission and Gearbox
In the F140 project, the rear gearbox is
coupled directly to the engine by an element that incorporates the
engine oil tank, the bevel gear pair, and the self-locking differential.
In line with the car's performance targets, the gearbox unit was
developed only in a Formula 1 version. Gear changes are entrusted
entirely to an electrohydraulic system which activates the gearbox and
clutch. Gear change control is managed electronically and activated by
paddles positioned behind the steering wheel, modifying engine torque
and vehicle dynamics.
The project was designed for extremely
sporty performance and adopts triple cone synchronisers on all six
speeds. Lubrication is forced, with a large pump and lower oil
level to minimise losses due to ventilation/shaking. The architecture
with three bearings guarantees optimal gear train coupling even at high
torque. The twin plate clutch with aluminium housing and a diameter of
215 mm also speeds up engine dynamics and synchronisation.
The number one goal of the Enzo project
was to cut gear change times (down to 150 milliseconds) in the interests
of extremely sporty use. The F1 gear levers are made of carbon,
with an optimised shape and size, and they have been made symmetrical by
transferring the direction indicator controls to the steering wheel
spokes. The gear change pushbuttons are mounted on the steering wheel,
as are the two different gear change modes, Sport and Race, as well as
the reverse gear selector button.
Each of these modes comes with its own integrated software controlling
damping and traction control systems (ASR.)
In RACE mode and with ASR disengaged, the
Launch Control strategy borrowed from Formula 1 is also available,
allowing the driver to start off at top speed in good grip conditions.
The driver keeps the brake pedal down while he uses the accelerator
pedal to choose the engine speed at which he wishes to set off. When he
releases the brake pedal, the clutch closes rapidly while torque control
is left to the driver.
The system fine-tuned by Ferrari for its
Formula 1 transmission envisages a special multiple telltale at the
centre of the main instrument panel which keeps the driver constantly
informed about the state of the system and the speed engaged.
The chassis was built entirely of carbon
fibre and aluminium honeycomb sandwich panels, which made it possible to
meet demands for outstanding rigidity, lightness and safety. In order to
pass the offset collision tests required by the latest safety standards
(56 km/h impact), highly sophisticated CAE methodologies were adopted to
optimise the composite structures, to identify the optimal bodyshell
structure, and to maximise the contribution of the reinforcement skin,
where it is needed to support the basic panelling. The final result
already meets the stricter future standards which will raise the
collision speed to 60 km/h.
Respect for the styling and access
targets (door solution with impact on the roof of the chassis) and the
goal of passing 64 km/h offset collision tests with a view to further
evolution of the requirements (extremely demanding in structural terms
as a result of the 30 % increase in kinetic energy to be dissipated
compared to previous collision standards), required complex planning of
the tooling and the manufacturing methods.
The use of CAE optimisation
methodologies was extended to the engine support frame, and particularly
to the distribution of thicknesses in the suspension casting. In
line with the work done for the bodyshell, a specific analysis set-up
made it possible to identify the best weight-performance trade-off,
supplying exact indications for the distribution of casting thicknesses.
Experiments confirmed the validity of
the solutions chosen: torsional rigidity proved to be higher than the
project target and to correspond to the values calculated, while all the
homologation collisions gave a positive result from the start.
These results are all the more
significant if we consider that the chassis weight had also been
decreased considerably to 92 kg (compared to the 102 kg of the composite
chassis of the earlier F50).
Suspension and Wheels
The Enzo has independent front and rear
suspension with jointed double wishbones, and antidive-antisquat
geometries to limit pitching during the transfer of longitudinal loads.
The front uspension, which is push-rod in type with an opposed damper,
also incorporates a lift to increase ground clearance during parking
maneuvers. The rear suspension was designed to adapt to the
chassis, with the engine-gearbox-differential assembly supported
elastically, and a rear subframe.
Combined with this suspension layout, an
adaptive set-up was adopted for the Enzo project, based on a system of
continuous control of the damping effect. The adoption of this system on
the vehicle makes it possible to reconcile handling requirements (i.e.
roadholding, minimal variation of the ground load) with the demands of
comfort (movement and acceleration of the "shell", vibration transmitted
to the driver), without having to adopt passive solutions (standard
dampers) as a compromise.
In other words, electronic adaptation of
the damping effect makes it possible to use a damper setting that is
sufficiently comfortable in the car's basic configuration ("Sport"
setting), yet there is also a setting that offers extra control in high
performance conditions ("Race" setting).
The system uses the unsprung weights
(wheels and suspension) to hold the sprung weight still (body) but it
also insulates the shell from impulses transmitted to the wheels by the
ground. The system is actually made up of four sensors (accelerometers)
on the shell, two vertical wheel sensors, one vehicle speed sensor and a
brake switch. The dampers are fitted with an internal proportional
valve governed by the control unit, allowing damping to be modified
The braking torque control strategies
(via ABS/ASR) were specially developed on the basis of the installed
power and the optimisation of the braking system, and achieved a
satisfactorily convenient result in terms of torque and braking
Although the Enzo project put the
emphasis on handling, because of the car's extreme connotations, the
adaptive set-up system employed meant that a good level of comfort could
be obtained. Where the wheel modules are concerned, single-bolt
light aluminium alloy wheels were chosen. The tyres were developed
specifically for the Enzo project by Bridgestone and bear the exclusive
name "Bridgestone Potenza RE050 Scuderia".
In order to maximise running safety, the
car is equipped with a system that measures tyre pressure through
special sensors inside the wheel rims, near the inflation valve. These
sensors transmit a signal which is picked up by the antennae behind the
stone traps on the bodyshell and linked to the control unit of the
pressure monitoring system, which transmits the state of the tyre
pressure to the instrument panel.
The braking system developed for the car by
Brembo features brakes made of carbo-ceramic material (CCM) used for the
first time on a Ferrari road car, although Ferrari has been using them
for many years on its Formula 1 racing cars. This made it possible to
achieve outstanding results on the Enzo for all braking performance
parameters. The main benefit required of this application was a
decrease in unsprung masses, which was made possible by the significant
reduction in the weight of the brake discs (12.5 kg less than
conventional brakes). In addition to this, the entire braking system was
obviously designed for maximum braking effectiveness and efficiency, in
terms of prompt braking, stopping distances, and fade resistance. A
further benefit of using brake discs in composite material was achieved
in terms of improved reliability over time.
All of the main surfaces are made from
unadorned carbon fibre. The functional elements are hooked onto a
structural aluminium crossbeam. One of the main goals for the
interior of the Enzo was to develop the concept of a facia and
steering wheel that could optimise the flow of information and the way
controls were activated by the driver, to make the so-called man-machine
interface much more efficient.
One element that helped in
this direction is the completely new steering wheel, the upper part of
which is made of carbon and bevelled so as not to limit external
visibility. It contains a series of LEDs which duplicate the telltales
and the rev counter, and the lower part has been optimized to make more
space for the driver.
Like a Formula 1 steering
wheel, it also includes a large number of controls (six) on either side,
linked to the main vehicle control functions: vehicle lift, reverse,
exclusion/re-engagement ASR, integrated Sport/Race strategy, display
The control panel is
tailor-made for the driver and includes technical features that are
easily accessible from the wheel grip, and a compact, mixed
analogue-digital instrument panel, in the shape of a reconfigurable
The driver's seat is an
essential part of the driving position structure. A new racing seat was
developed, made of carbon fibre and designed to give greater rigidity
and to make the driving sensation more precise, filtering even the
tiniest flexion in the seat system as much as possible. The aim was to
give the Enzo driver the greatest possible awareness of the car's
Seat inclination is
adjusted by a double Bowden lever system, and includes a lever control
on the seat cushion, the only system of its kind in the field of fast
sports car seats. The driver can also adjust the squab-seat combination
to obtain a perfect driving posture.
Because the project only
envisages a version with the F1 gearbox, there are only two pedals
(accelerator and brake) which were optimized functionally and
stylistically. There are numerous settings, for a total of 16 different