under 8 seconds
mph (electronically limited)
Press Release) 102EX – PHANTOM EXPERIMENTAL ELECTRIC
Motor Cars begins an exploration into alternative drive-trains,
seeking clarity on which technology may be suitable to drive
Rolls-Royce motor cars of the future. The alternative drive-train we
choose must deliver an authentic Rolls-Royce experience. It must be
a technology that is right for our customers, our brand and which
sets us on a sound footing for a sustainable future. That is why
this project is so important.” – CEO Torsten Müller-Ötvös.
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars proudly presents 102EX, a car that represents
one of the most significant initiatives taken by the company in
recent years. It is the world’s first battery electric vehicle for
the ultra-luxury segment and continues a tradition of experimental
cars running through the model generations.
Rolls-Royce produces cars that represent the pinnacle in luxurious
motoring for the world’s most discerning customers. However, the
company also recognises the need to look to the future and to plan
for long-term sustainable growth. An investigation into alternative
drive-train options is an important step in that process.
With 102EX, also to be known as the Phantom Experimental Electric
(EE), it is the company’s intention to carefully test the opinions
and reactions to alternative drive-train options of a range of
stakeholders including owners, enthusiasts, members of the public
and the media.
Throughout 2011 Phantom EE will serve as a working test bed, giving
owners, VIPs, the media and enthusiasts the opportunity to
experience an established alternative drive-train technology and to
feed back their experiences, thoughts and concerns directly.
The bank of research gathered from a global drive programme that
will include Europe, the Middle East, Asia and North America will be
crucial to decisions affecting alternative drive-trains for
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.
There are no plans to build a production version of this car.
Phantom EE’s role is as a test bed, designed to explore established
BEV technologies, to pose as well as to answer questions.
Can Phantom EE deliver an acceptable range for customers without
frequent re-charging? Is there confidence in its ability to operate
in extreme conditions? Will reliability and quality be consistent
with expectations of the world’s pinnacle automotive brand?
Phantom EE also poses more fundamental questions: Is an all-electric
drive-train able to deliver an authentic Rolls-Royce experience for
customers, an experience that truly befits the marque?
Whether all-electric or another alternative drive-train option is
right for Rolls-Royce will become clearer when the test programme is
complete at the end of the year.
102EX – PHANTOM EXPERIMENTAL
Reinvention is part of
being timeless and Phantom EE is the latest in a line of
experimental vehicles from Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. It builds on a
legacy which dates back to 1919 and 1EX.
Experimental models are used to test and evaluate new technologies
and applications which could shape future Rolls-Royce products.
Unlike a concept car, Rolls-Royce experimental models are always
fully functioning, drivable vehicles using tangible materials such
as wood, leather and metals rather than clay and foam or other
They present engineers and designers with the opportunity for
real-world innovation and are used not only to showcase new
components and engineering techniques but also to evaluate them.
The latest in this line of experimental projects began with a
Rolls-Royce Phantom, a strikingly modern and immaculately
proportioned car in which high technology and hand-craftsmanship
combine to produce something extraordinary.
Phantom EE features the car’s ground-breaking aluminium spaceframe,
so important to dynamic prowess, as well as the sense of calm and
tranquillity enjoyed by occupants. However, the naturally aspirated
6.75-litre V12 petrol engine and 6-speed gearbox have been replaced
by a lithium ion battery pack and two electric motors mounted on the
rear sub-frame. These motors are connected to a single speed
transmission with integrated differential.
Each motor is power rated to 145kW, giving Phantom EE a maximum
power output of 290kW and torque of 800Nm available over a wide
band. This compares with 338kW for standard Phantom with maximum
torque of 720Nm, delivered at 3,500rpm.
The Nickel Cobalt Manganese battery chemistry holds around 230Wh/kg,a
high energy density which is important in achieving an acceptable
range between re-charges. Pre-launch tests suggests Phantom EE
should run to a range of up to 200km. Delivered on an effortless
wave of torque, 0-60mph will be achieved in under eight seconds (5.7
seconds in standard Phantom), with top speed limited to 160kph.
This is the first application of the technology in a GKL++ segment
(super luxury vehicles priced at more than €200,000) and the battery
pack is thought to be the largest ever fitted to a road car.
Evaluation of technology is an important part of the test programme.
However, more fundamentally the car will seek answers to questions
posed of Rolls-Royce owners: what their needs might be for the
future considering factors such as range, performance and
The feedback from customers – as well as media, stakeholders and
enthusiasts via the website www.electricluxury.com - will prove
essential in evaluating the appropriateness of battery electric
technology for Rolls-Royce.
It will help inform a decision on whether all-electric, or another
alternative drive-train technology, will be most appropriate for the
world’s best cars of the future.
“It’s a credible design
concept that perfectly complements the experimental nature of the
car, exploring options in light, space and use of materials. Had we
changed the overall aesthetic, the concept would have lost
credibility; our audience would assume it was simply a styling
exercise. The reality is that this is an experimental vehicle in its
truest sense, challenging perceptions, emotions and values - as well
as exploring alternative drive-train technology.” – Ian Cameron,
Chief Designer Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.
102EX bears the famous hallmarks of the Rolls-Royce Phantom on which
it is based, such as hand craftsmanship, fine detailing and iconic
design cues like the pantheon grille and the Spirit of Ecstasy which
celebrates its centenary in 2011. However, at the core of its design
is the essence of an experimental vehicle, establishing this car’s
status as a test bed, while subtly alluding to its electric power
The design creates a different aesthetic, experimenting with
interior space and materials, as well as trims and illumination.
These are framed around functional considerations for a battery
electric Rolls-Royce - how the car is likely to be used and the
changes that the technology brings in terms of interior space and
exterior detailing. Naturally, these changes are executed in a way
that affirms the car’s credentials as a Rolls-Royce.
ATLANTIC CHROME EXTERIOR
Our designers were
challenged with creating a finish for Phantom EE which immediately
signified a special car, distinguishing it from standard Phantom
models in the absence of many overt design changes. Not an easy
task, since all Phantom models are special – with customers
benefitting from a range of bespoke paint options running to some
Extensive research however had revealed a highly reflective paint
using ceramic nano particles. Under a microscope these mimic the
impression of a silver metal, but are between 8,000 and 80,000 times
smaller than the thickness of a hair or 1,000 times smaller than the
size of a normal metallic paint particle.
Test parts were produced and the design team were impressed with the
results, knowing that the larger the object covered the better it
would look. But they were under no illusions as to the task ahead.
In all sixteen coats of paint were needed, of which four were
Atlantic Chrome, and many hours of time dedicated to ensuring a
perfect end result. The finish is a striking one. Phantom EE
commands the stage, with taut almost chiselled lines giving a wet
impression to the car. This only grows in character as light
ILLUMINATED SPIRIT OF ECSTASY
As well as the launch of
102EX, 2011 marks another milestone in the history of Rolls-Royce
Motor Cars. On 6 February 1911, the design for Charles Sykes’ Spirit
of Ecstasy was first registered, signalling the start of a 100 year
period in which this famous icon has adorned the prow of Rolls-Royce
cars, from the famous Silver Ghosts, Clouds and Shadows of the 20th
Century to today’s hand-built Phantom and Ghost models.
Phantom EE’s Spirit of Ecstasy, sits atop the radiator grille above
the red double-R badge applied to EX models. Made of Makrolon,
rather than stainless steel, it will be bathed in blue LED light,
hinting at the electric technology beneath the bonnet. This stunning
image complements the keynote graphic of website –
www.electricluxury.com – where Rolls-Royce Motor Cars will expand
the debate on the question of electric luxury to the online
community, taking views from enthusiasts, media and members of the
dashboard dials echo the exterior colour, providing a sense of
interior-exterior balance and their analogue displays maintain the
timeless architecture that every Phantom interior commands.
Other changes hint at further evolutionary designs applied to the
car. For example, some dials have been subtly modified to provide
information needed by the driver of an electric vehicle. The fuel
gauge in particular has been replaced by an elegant battery charge
One of the most pleasing features of every Rolls-Royce Phantom
interior is the power reserve dial located beside the speedometer.
This reveals how much of the V12 engine’s power remains at a
driver’s disposal. Phantom EE takes this concept a step further.
It features a regeneration symbol which takes the dial beyond the
normal 100% line of standard Phantom. Depending on the momentum
gathered, it conveys the degree of re-charge taking place as the
vehicle is in motion.
EXTERIOR RE-CHARGING POINT
undertaken with a plug and five-pin socket which takes the place of
the normal fuel filling mechanism for Phantom.The standard fuel
filler cap has been replaced by a design featuring a clear window,
displaying the RR logo and 102EX motif. The window frames
rear-mounted, tricolour LEDs which present the car’s charging
On start up, the socket is bathed in blue light. This begins to
flash as charging commences. When completely charged, the display
turns green, then flashing green as the solenoid is disengaged. A
potential fault in the system is indicated by either constant or
flashing red light.
Charging can be halted via a switch located adjacent to the plug.
The process can also be operated inside the vehicle using controls
accessed beneath the centre console, for example when induction
charging is taking place.
CENTRE CONSOLE DETAIL
A key identifier for
Phantom EE is the design of the centre console charging and display,
sited below the central arm rest. A simple switch is used to start
and halt charging, while the display itself features a bright plate
with an image of a battery, lit by LEDs.
Reflecting the lights applied to the exterior charging point, this
image changes colour according to the charge status of the car. A
blue-lit battery shows the vehicle is on standard charge, while
pulsating blue indicates that inductive charging is taking place.
Green indicates a fully charged battery while red notifies engineers
of a potential fault in the system.
“At Rolls-Royce we pride
ourselves in producing an authentic and natural product for
customers, the quality of which is second to none. Seton Corinova is
an experimental vegetable-tanned leather that allows us to celebrate
more of the curves, creases and other features that are part and
parcel of the life of the animal. It’s a more sympathetic process
that stretches our understanding of Rolls-Royce interior
expectations. Owners’ reactions will prove fascinating during the
tour.” – Andrew Monachan, Rolls-Royce Motor Cars General Manager,
Interior wood veneers present Phantom owners with unique grains,
patterns and detail adding weight to the fact that every model
leaving Goodwood is as unique as the finger print of its owner.
Phantom EE takes this concept a step further.
Its leather interior is derived from a natural vegetable tanning
process christened Corinova. This gives life to the car, adding
definition to the seats, floor and arm rests.
Most leather produced for automotive applications is chrome tanned.
This is an important constituent that helps to stabilise animal
hides and transfer collagen into leather fibres. The barrel-dyeing
process used to colour Phantom interior leathers gives a rich,
uniform pigmentation while maintaining the natural feel and
An experimental leather, Corinova distinguishes itself by being
entirely chrome free. It starts with a preparation of
Glutardialehyde to prepare for tanning. Chestnut extract,
sustainably sourced from Southern Europe and Tara powder from
crushed fruit of the Tara bush in South America are used for
drum-spun colouring. Fruits are harvested without damage to the
plant and the product is finished with a combination of natural
binders and high tech polymers.
The process lends itself only to certain earthy colours – in the
case of Phantom EE a chestnut colour for seat covers and Quebracho
Brown for other areas such as the floor and trunk lining, both of
which are made of durable saddle leather.
As well as aesthetic differences, Corinova leather presents a number
of practical benefits. It uses less paint finish than in standard
chrome-tanned leather and creates less waste. It negates the use of
petrol-refined products and with further development, it may be
possible to use recycled Corinova leather in agriculture to aerate
Rolls-Royce fully expects perceptions to be challenged and first
impressions will no doubt focus on appearance, as features that
define the life of the animal are more clearly visible in areas like
seats and armrests than in production Phantom interiors. A change
from the sumptuous finish applied to Phantom leather may imply a
compromise to some owners, but others may welcome distinguishing
features that stretch individualisation for Rolls-Royce Phantom
models ever further.
As well as gauging owner feedback, the leather will be tested for
its durability and performance after several months on tour.
The interior of Phantom
EE represents a departure from the traditional wood sets that define
the majority of cars delivered to customers, providing a unique
finish to the car. It features a distinctive aluminised foil weave
that lifts the environment of the interior, contrasting sharply with
the darker natural leather within. As is the case with Corinova
leather, the aim is to challenge traditional perceptions of what
might constitute a Rolls-Royce interior design scheme.
Phantom EE is thought to
have the largest passenger car battery in the world. Peak current is
850A, delivered at 338V DC. Overall capacity is 71kWh.
The pack is comprised of large-format NCM pouch cells. NCM
(Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide) is a variant of lithium-ion
chemistry that has particularly high energy and power densities.
The Phantom EE battery pack houses five modules of cells, a 38-cell
module, a 36-cell module, and three smaller ones of ten, eight and
four arranged in various orientations within an irregular shaped
unit. This resembles the overall shape of the original engine and
Each of the 96 cells was individually tested before assembly into
modules to determine their characteristics and capacity.
Sub-assemblies were further tested under load to verify that the
power connections between each cell perform to specification.
The electronic sensing units for each group of cells were tested and
calibrated prior to assembly and put through a rigorous temperature
cycling regime designed to provoke failure of weak components. The
main electronic box, which contains the switching and control gear,
was tested in isolation from the other components to verify correct
Three separate charger units (3kW each) are fitted to the battery,
which allow both single-phase (20 hours) or three-phase charging (8
hours); for a passenger car this is unique. A fourth induction
charger is also fitted to enable wireless charging, a technology
being trialled in Phantom EE.
The battery pack would be expected to last over three years were it
to be used every day. Part of the programme however will be to test
this assumption in a real world environment and deliver a more
robust answer to the question of battery lifespan.
Concerns about lack of
available re-charging infrastructure in towns and cities are well
documented and critics of electric motoring point to the additional
inconvenience of trailing cables connected between power source and
To present Rolls-Royce owners with a vision of a potential solution
to these problems, Phantom EE is testing a technology called
induction charging. This allows re-charging to take place without
any physical connection, delivering greater convenience for owners
and hinting at the potential for a network of remote charging
There are two main elements to induction charging; a transfer pad on
the ground that delivers power from a mains source and an induction
pad mounted under the car, beneath Phantom EE’s battery pack. Power
frequencies are magnetically coupled across these power transfer
The system is around 90 percent efficient when measured from mains
supply to battery and it is tolerant to parking misalignment. For
example, it is not essential to align the transmitter and Phantom
receiver pads exactly for charging to take place. While pads are
capable of transmitting power over gaps of up to 400mm, for Phantom
EE the separation is in the region of 150mm.
The coupling circuits are tuned through the addition of
compensation capacitors. Pick-up coils in the receiver pad are
magnetically coupled to the primary coil. Power transfer is achieved
by tuning the pick-up coil to the operating frequency of the primary
coil with a series or parallel capacitor.
The pick-up controller is an essential part of the technology
because it takes power from the receiver pad and provides a
controlled output to batteries. It is required to provide an output
that remains independent of the load and the separation between
pads. Without a controller, the voltage would rise as the gap
decreases and fall as the load current increases.
The transmitter pad has been constructed to shield magnetic fields
to prevent EMI egress to bystanders and the system operates well
within internationally agreed limits.
ELECTRIC CARS AND THE FOUNDING
FATHERS OF ROLLS-ROYCE
Charles Rolls, Henry
Royce and Claude Johnson played their part in an electrical
revolution that pre-empted the establishment of internal combustion
as the dominant car engine technology.
Henry Royce had developed a career as an accomplished electrical
engineer before turning his expert hands to car manufacturing.
His business F.H. Royce and Co, which began selling simple lights
and bell sets in the 1890s, became prosperous through the design and
delivery of dynamos, electric motors and industrial cranes. Royce’s
many innovations include the patent for the bayonet bulb holder, a
design that endures today.
One of Royce’s clients was Pritchett and Gold, a company based in
Feltham in Middlesex. As well as manufacturing accumulators they had
developed a two-seater electric car, at least one of which was
powered by a Royce electric motor.
The Honourable Charles Rolls also toyed with electric motoring in
the years before the two men met. He had negotiated for the selling
rights of an electric brougham, through C.S Rolls and Co, in Conduit
Street, London which latterly established exclusive rights to sell
It is likely that this car was part of the City and Suburban
Electric Car Project, a joint venture of two men, Paris Singer and
one Claude Johnson. The project had a short life and Johnson left to
join the rapidly expanding business of Rolls, latterly taking the
role of managing director of Rolls-Royce. He became known as ‘the
hyphen in Rolls-Royce’, with a pivotal role in its success.
Charles Rolls was on record outlining the merits of electric
drive-trains - as well as raising prescient concerns about range and
re-charging. He regarded a model called the Columbia as the best of
its type, commenting in Automobile Journal:
“They are perfectly noiseless and clean. There is no smell or
vibration and they should become very useful for town use when fixed
charging stations can be arranged. But for country use I do not
anticipate they will be very serviceable – at least not for many
years to come.”
Later, when the first exports of petrol powered Rolls-Royce models
were made to America, some authorities refused to believe they were
not electrically powered, thanks to their legendary near-silent
In the 21st Century silence remains a key signature for Rolls-Royce
cars. Other attributes of all-electric drive-trains also allude to
famous Rolls-Royce characteristics. Power at low speeds is one
Thanks to improvements in battery technology, it may be that the
serviceability to which Rolls referred more than a century ago is
now sufficiently developed to re-visit all-electric motoring as an
And to pose a 21st Century question of customers, enthusiasts and
Electric luxury – can it be perfection or does it present an
unacceptable compromise for Rolls-Royce Motor Cars?
doors/seats 4 / 5 (optionally 4)
Vehicle length 5840 mm / 229.9 in
Vehicle width 1990 mm / 78.3 in
Vehicle height (unladen) 1638 mm / 64.5 in
Wheelbase 3570 mm / 140.6 in
Turning circle 13.8 m / 45.3 ft
Track, front 1687 mm / 66.4 in
Track, rear 1671 mm / 65.8 in
Width at shoulder height, front 1509 mm / 59.4 in
Width at shoulder height, rear 1431 mm / 56.3 in
Leg room, front 1028 mm / 40.5 in
Leg room, rear 1109 mm / 43.7 in
Head room, front 1051 mm / 41.4 in
Head room, rear 979 mm / 38.5 in
Boot volume (DIN) 460 ltr / 16.2 cu ft
Unladen weight (DIN) 2,720 kg
Gross vehicle weight 3,030 kg
Payload 300 kg
Axle load limit, front 1,473 kg
Axle load limit, rear 1,548 kg
Maximum power output 290 kW
Torque 800 Nm
Chemistry NCM (Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide) li-ion
Number of cells 96 in pouch design
Battery pack weight 640 kg
Peak current 330 kW at 850 Amps
Charge time (est) 20 hours single phase / 8 hours
Transmission type Single speed 6:5:1 with integral
Steering type EHPS Rack and pinion, speed-sensitive
variable-rate power assistance
Front / diameter Ventilated disc / 374 mm / 14.7 in
Rear / diameter Ventilated disc / 370 mm / 14.6 in
Drag Cd 0.37
Drag Cd x A 1.041m2 / 11.2 ft2
Top speed 160 kph (governed)
Acceleration 0-60 mph Under 8 seconds
CO2 emissions Nil
Tyre, front Goodyear EMT 255/50 R21 106W
Tyre, rear Goodyear EMT 285/45 R21 109W
Wheels (21 in alloy)
Wheel size, front 8 in x 21 in
Wheel size, rear 9.5 in x 21 in
12V Battery capacity / installed position 90+70 Ah / boot