Diesel 3-cylinder hybrid
mph (electronically limited)
(from BMW Press
Release) BMW Vision EfficientDynamics
concept study with BMW ActiveHybrid technology visualising the
dynamic performance typical of a BMW against the backdrop of
future demands in sustained mobility. BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics as a symbol for the future of Sheer Driving
Pleasure in harmony with trendsetting efficiency.
• Development aim: The performance of a BMW M Car and a highly
emotional character combined with the fuel economy and emission
management of a modern small car in the premium class. As a
result, this unique sports car offers the most consistent
rendition of the BMW EfficientDynamics development strategy.
• Innovative approach in the context of BMW EfficientDynamics:
The exceedingly good balance of CO2 emission management and
driving pleasure results from a revolutionary vehicle concept
developed all in one from the ground up, achieving a new level
of efficiency combined with a unique driving experience. The
overall result goes far beyond the sum total of the individual
features and components in this concept car.
• BMW Vision EfficientDynamics offers a realistic impression of
the unique potential of BMW ActiveHybrid technology and the
great innovative thrust of BMW EfficientDynamics.
• Offering a
full-hybrid concept, the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept
car is powered by a three-cylinder turbodiesel and two electric
motors. Overall system output is 262 kW/356 hp, maximum torque
800 Newton-metres/590 lb-ft. All-wheel drive featuring an
electric motor on both the front and rear axle.
• Anticipated performance: Acceleration from a standstill to 100
km/h in 4.8 seconds, top speed 250 km/h (155 mph)
(electronically limited) , fuel consumption in the EU test cycle
3.76 litres/100 km (equal to 75.1 mph imp), CO2 emissions 99
• As a plug-in hybrid, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is able to
cover the entire fuel consumption drive cycle under electric
power alone. Taking the sources of energy used for generating
the electric power consumed into account (EU electricity mix),
this reduces the CO2 emission rating to just 50 grams per
• Electric power is generated without the slightest increase in
fuel consumption through a particularly efficient concept of
Brake Energy Regeneration. Energy is stored in 98 lithium
polymer cells. The car is able to cover a distance of
approximately 50 km/31 miles in the electric mode alone.
• Aerodynamics developed with know-how from Formula 1. CX drag
coefficient optimised to just 0.22. Forward-looking energy
management uses the maximum potential available in each case to
minimise fuel consumption.
Technology-oriented body design as a clear expression of
consistent lightweight technology and aerodynamic quality.
Design language typical of the brand, setting clear signals in
terms of sporting performance and optimum efficiency.
• The 2+2-seater concept combines dynamic performance and
supreme efficiency with an enhanced level of all-round function.
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics symbolises BMW’s commitment to
offer an unprecedented driving experience for up to four
• BMW Vision EfficientDynamics comes with gullwing doors opening
up to the side. Innovative, weight-optimised door kinematics
makes entering the car at both front and rear convenient and
• The interior of this unique 2+2-seater intentionally
demonstrates the very latest in modern technology. At the same
time the use of natural materials underlines BMW’s strategy of
sustainability borne out through this concept car.
• The roof and door inserts made of polycarbonate glass
automatically become darker as a function of incoming light.
BMW ActiveHybrid – a New Path to
Thrilling Dynamics: BMW Vision EfficientDynamics.
BMW sees technical
innovations reducing both emissions and fuel consumption as an
elementary part of the brand’s product strategy, just like vehicle
concepts enhancing the Sheer Driving Pleasure so typical of BMW as a
lasting, sustained experience.
Now the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept car clearly
demonstrates that these objectives expressed through the BMW
EfficientDynamics development strategy are fully compatible with the
most demanding reduction in fuel consumption and emissions complying
in full with future requirements. Conceived as a 2+2-seater with
plug-in full-hybrid technology, this unique car is able to combine
the performance of a BMW M Car with a standard of fuel economy and
emission management exceeding even the current level achieved by the
latest small cars in the market.
This outstanding result is made possible by the consistent
integration of BMW ActiveHybrid components, their combination with
an extremely economical combustion engine, and the outstanding
aerodynamic qualities of the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is the result of an all-inclusive
development process starting from a clean sheet of paper. This
ensures an improvement of both efficiency and driving pleasure far
exceeding the sum total of all individual components and
technologies, and is also borne out in the very emotional design of
this unique concept car. BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is therefore
an unprecedented sports car offering fascinating perspectives for
the future of Sheer Driving Pleasure combined in full harmony with
Presenting this unique concept car, BMW is once again demonstrating
the company’s outstanding competence in the development of
cutting-edge drive systems. Indeed, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is
the most comprehensive implementation of the BMW EfficientDynamics
development strategy seen so far. The drive units provide a top
speed limited electronically of 250 km/h or 155 mph, with
acceleration to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds. Average fuel consumption in
the EU test cycle is 3.76 litres/100 kilometres, equal to 75.1 mpg
imp, and the CO2 emission rating is 99 grams per kilometre.
CO2 emission management is even more outstanding when driving in the
all-electric mode after charging the battery from a plug-in source:
Taking all emissions in the generation of electricity into account,
as prescribed by the EU mix, the car’s emission rating in this case
is just 50 grams per kilometre. Through this unique balance of
driving pleasure and fuel economy the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics
concept car clearly demonstrates the potential of BMW ActiveHybrid
technology making its world debut at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show
in the BMW ActiveHybrid X6 and BMW ActiveHybrid 7 production models.
This truly impressive power and performance is made possible by
combining a particularly fuel-efficient three-cylinder turbodiesel
with one electric motor each on the front and rear axle. The
intelligent combination of these three power units and the energy
they develop, together with precisely controlled energy management,
serves to enhance both the dynamic performance and the all-round
effi ciency of the car, using the full potential of BMW ActiveHybrid
to reduce both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions to the greatest
possible extent. Overall system output is 262 kW/356 hp, peak torque
is 800 Newton-metres/590 lb-ft.
The special arrangement of the three power units allows all-wheel
drive also available in the all-electric mode. The result is minimum
power loss and at the same time harmonious transmission of the power
available under all conditions.
In its design, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics for the fi rst time
conveys the dynamic look so typical of a BMW sports car to a hybrid
vehicle. Developed with know-how from Formula 1, the body of this
unique sports car is an expression of intelligent lightweight
technology and supreme aerodynamic efficiency. And in the design of
the interior, the focus was likewise on both the fascinating driving
experience and, in particular, on transparent, hands-on technology
and maximum reduction of weight.
Turbodiesel power unit with
unprecedented output per litre.
The combustion engine is
a cutting-edge turbodiesel featured for the first time in the BMW
Vision EfficientDynamics concept car. Displacing 1.5 litres on three
cylinders, the engine consistently follows the downsizing principle
using relatively small engine capacity combined with a turbocharger
to reduce fuel consumption.
Through its compact dimensions, the three-cylinder fits conveniently
in front of the rear axle like in an agile mid-engined sports car,
despite the two seats at the rear. Fuel is injected by the latest
generation of common-rail direct injection, the turbocharger
features variable intake geometry for maximum efficiency.
Engine output is 120 kW/163 hp, peak torque 290 Newton-metres/214
lb-ft. The output per litre of 80 kW/109 hp achieved in this way
sets a new record in diesel technology.
The power delivered by the turbodiesel in conveyed to the rear axle
by means of a double-clutch gearbox. This advanced transmission
technology already offering a particularly dynamic driving
experience in BMW’s unusually sporting production cars, allows the
driver to shift gears without the slightest interruption of power
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics comes with a newly developed, minimum
consumption version of BMW’s direct-clutch gearbox with six speeds
for maximum efficiency and flexibility.
Two electric motors for
The combustion engine is
supplemented by two electric motors. Consistently applying the BMW
ActiveHybrid strategy, BMW’s development engineers followed the
principle of “Best of Hybrid”, choosing the optimum combination of a
hybrid synchronous motor on the front axle and a full-hybrid system
at the rear. Through the specifi c configuration of the system as an
advanced hybrid ideal for practical use on the road, the driver
benefits from the extra efficiency of the electric motors over a far
wider speed range than with a conventional hybrid car.
The rear axle comes with a second-generation full-hybrid system
corresponding to the technology introduced for the fi rst time in
the BMW ActiveHybrid 7 production model. Running as an electric
motor, the compact electric power unit positioned between the
combustion engine and the double-clutch gearbox develops a
consistent 25 kW and is able to reach a peak of up to 38 kW. Maximum
torque, again, is 290 Nm or 214 lb-ft, the power developed in this
way serving, depending on driving conditions, either to support the
combustion engine or for all-electric motoring.
In overrun and when applying the brakes the electric motor acts as a
generator feeding electric power to the lithium-polymer battery in
the car. The electric energy developed in this way is therefore
generated without any additional consumption of fuel, raising the
principle of Brake Energy Regeneration already featured in BMW’s
current models to an even higher and significantly more efficient
level. Energy wasted on the brakes of a conventional car is thus
saved within the new power system for subsequent use in driving the
A second electric motor acts on the front axle. This power unit, a
hybrid synchronous motor, offers permanent output of 60 kW and peak
torque of 220 Newton-metres or 162 lb-ft. Extra power of 84 kW is
available for a period of up to 30 seconds and for 10 seconds the
electric motor is even able to develop 104 kW. Power is transmitted
through a two-stage, single-speed reduced-ratio gearbox.
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is able to run completely under
electric power, with the power of the turbodiesel engine alone, or
through an infinite combination of the three power sources.
Depending on driving conditions and the driver’s particular
requirements, the two electric motors may be used both for
accelerating and for regenerating energy when applying the brakes
and in overrun.
This principle ensures a high level of effi cient energy management,
with the charge status of the lithium-polymer battery constantly
remaining within the optimum range. When accelerating the electric
motors help to boost the car for even greater performance, ensuring
a spontaneous and direct response and a significant reduction in
fuel consumption. For a short time, for example when overtaking, the
cumulative maximum output of all three power units increases to 262
kW/356 hp, with maximum torque generated by the three power units
reaching 800 Newton-metres/590 lb-ft.
Lithium-polymer cells serving as
the battery for electrical energy.
The energy cells
featured in BMW Vision EfficientDynamics are housed in a chassis
element running from front to rear through the middle of the car.
The front unit is the lithium-polymer complex, an ongoing
development of the lithium-ion battery as the currently most effi
cient technology for storing a high level of electrical energy for
Overall, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics comes with a total of 98
lithium-polymer cells, each offering a capacity of 30 amp/hours and
developing continuous output of 600 Amps at a voltage of 3.7 V. For
a period of 30 seconds, each cell is even able to develop maximum
output of 1,200 Amps.
Serial arrangement of the lithium-polymer cells serves to generate
nominal voltage of 364 V, the gross storage capacity of the battery
is 10.8 kW/h. Offering an unusually high discharge capacity of 80
per cent, the battery delivers 8.6 kW/h for driving the car.
This superior performance comes on overall weight of the entire
energy storage system of just 85 kg or 187 lb. A further advantage
is that through their optimum dimensions tailored to the specifi c
qualities and features of the car, the lithium-polymer cells,
together with the operating strategy chosen with a concept of energy
management looking ahead at upcoming requirements, reduces the
thermal load acting on the battery to such an extent that there is
no need for active cooling.
Plug-in solution: convenient
charging of the electric power system
on a conventional power socket.
Regeneration consistently transfers electric power generated while
driving without any additional fuel consumption to the battery,
which may subsequently be used to supply power to both the electric
motors and the on-board network. A further option is to connect the
lithium-polymer cells to a conventional power socket for a simple
and efficient charge process, using a plug-in connector in the front
right wing of the car.
Connected to the regular domestic power mains (220 V, 16 Amps), the
system requires a maximum of 2 ˝ hours to fully charge the
lithium-polymer cells. Andwherever a power source with higher
voltage and amperage (380 V, 32 Amps) is available, the charge time
is an even shorter 44 minutes at the very most.
In addition to the electrical energy storage facilities, BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics comes with a conventional fuel tank at the rear
end of the central chassis tunnel, offering a capacity of 25 ltr or
5.5 imp gals. Running on diesel fuel alone, BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics is able to cover a distance of approximately 650
km or 400 miles just with its combustion engine. Benefiting from an
extra range of up to 50 kilometres or 31 miles in the all-electric
mode, the car offers an overall cruising range of approximately 700
kilometres or 435 miles.
As a result, this unique concept car offers all the requirements for
using energy with maximum effi ciency and at the same time
experiencing the dynamic performance so typical of BMW without any
restriction of everyday driving qualities.
Performance, fuel economy and
emission management opening up new dimensions
in hybrid motoring.
The power delivered by
the three power units gives the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept
car a level of dynamic performance far superior to anything provided
so far by any hybrid vehicle. Indeed, the performance and
consumption fi gures determined by standardised computer simulations
show an exceptionally good balance of driving pleasure and fuel
economy even for a hybrid. Acceleration from a standstill to 100
km/h, for example, comes in just 4.8 seconds and the car’s top speed
would be over 250 km/h or 155 mph, requiring electrical limitation
of top speed in accordance with BMW’s corporate philosophy through
electronic engine control now also on a full-hybrid sports car.
The objective to develop a vehicle offering the performance of a BMW
M Car combined with supreme all-round effi ciency therefore comes to
bear completely and without the slightest restriction in BMW Vision
At the same time fuel economy and emission management now reach a
standard only achieved so far, if at all, by far less powerful small
cars conceived primarily for city traffi c and short distances.
Applying the criteria of the EU test cycle currently prescribed by
law, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics offers average fuel consumption of
just 3.76 litres of diesel fuel per 100 kilometres, equal to
75.1 mpg imp. CO2 emissions, in turn, are 99 grams per kilometre.
These consumption and emission figures are measured on a consistent
internal power balance, meaning that the batteries and storage media
for electrical energy maintain the same charge level throughout the
entire test cycle (with the same level at the beginning and end) and
are charged while driving only by the car’s on-board systems.
As a plug-in hybrid, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is able to cover
the entire drive cycle for measuring fuel consumption also with its
combustion engine completely switched off. Then, to subsequently
charge the lithium-polymer cells to the same status as when setting
off, all the driver has to do is connect the car to an external
power grid. To determine the consumption of electric power, the only
requirement is to compare the charge level of the battery before and
after the test cycle.
Applying this measurement process, the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics
concept car consumes 17.5 kW/h per 100 kilometres, equal to a CO2
emission rating of just 50 grams per kilometre in the EU test cycle.
To determine the total volume of CO2 emissions when driving in the
all-electric mode, new legal standards for measuring the level of
fuel consumption are currently being prepared for hybrid and
electric cars with a plug-in power supply. Applying this calculation
method, the CO2 emission ratings generated by BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics are reduced further to just one-third of the
original figure of 99 grams per kilometre. Clearly, this significant
reduction of emissions opens up a new dimension in BMW’s
EfficientDynamics development strategy in this unique concept car.
Aerodynamic qualities reflecting
BMW’s know-how gained in Formula 1.
EfficientDynamics also takes a new approach in its design and
streamlining, the body and the interior clearly expressing the
unique combination of supreme efficiency and the sporting
performance so typical of the brand. Following the design language
so characteristic of BMW, this unprecedented concept car clearly
visualises both highly efficient aerodynamics and consistent
In its design, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics differs significantly
from the usual low-emission cars seen so far. And since the
principle of “form follows function” is not reduced in this case
just to the overall look of the car, but rather embraces each and
every detail, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics combines unique aesthetic
appeal with a highly emotional impact. Through its design alone,
therefore, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics clearly proves that Sheer
Driving Pleasure in typical BMW style may also be offered without
restrictions in a brand-new, innovative car concept.
Measuring only 1.24 metres or 48.8" in height and boasting a
sweeping, arch-like roofline, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics offers
the slender silhouette of a classic Gran Turismo. With the
combustion engine fitted in front of the rear axle, the designers
have furthermore succeeded in giving the car a very low and sleek
front end, with the fl ow of air depending on driving conditions
being further smoothened by active louvers in the radiator closing
completely whenever the need for cooling air is relatively low.
This efficient function follows in the footsteps of the active air
flap control already used as a feature of BMW EfficientDynamics in
many of BMW’s current production models. And as a further highlight,
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics guides air smoothly and exactly as
required into the car through an active air intake at the front.
Numerous details in the design of the body are based on the know-how
BMW has gained in Formula 1, a number of body elements serving as
air deflectors and guide vanes, like on the BMW Sauber F1. Designed
as ducts, for example, the A-pillars serve to channel the flow of
air in the same way as the rear lights with their wing profile.
The underfloor of the car is fully covered from front to rear and
from one side to the other, thus maintaining a smooth surface to
avoid any air swirl liable to increase fuel consumption. Slender
openings around the front air dam guide the air flowing in specifi
cally into two closed ducts leading inside the front air dam to the
wheel arches where the air comes out again through a very slim
aperture at high speed, flowing just next to the outer wheel flanks.
This air jet rests on the front wheels like a curtain and is
therefore referred to most appropriately as the air curtain with its
highly stabilising effect.
Overall vehicle concept for a drag
coefficient of just 0.22.
To further optimise the
aerodynamic qualities of the entire vehicle and keep rolling
resistance to a minimum, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics comes with
tyres and rims of quite unusual size on a sports car. The tyres
measure 195/55 in their width-to-height ratio, while large 21-inch
rims provide a contact surface on the road otherwise offered only by
a much wider tyre. In combination with the sophisticated axle
kinematics, this ensures particularly agile driving behaviour.
The extra-large rim covers extending over part of the tyre flanks
add to the unique, very different look of BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics from the side. The blade profile integrated in the
rims serves furthermore to reduce the negative effect of the turning
wheels on the overall aerodynamics of the car. In all, these
features optimising the aerodynamic qualities of the car give the
BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept car a very low drag factor (CX)of
Technological look as a strong
impression of intelligent lightweight construction.
In both its exterior and
interior design, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics stands out clearly as
a strong spearhead in technology. Many components of the vehicle are
presented in full view expressing the “transparent” character of the
car as a powerful visual feature of lightweight technology. The
chassis and suspension of BMW Vision EfficientDynamics are made
completely of aluminium, the roof and the outer skin on the large
doors are made almost completely of a special polycarbonate glass
automatically darkening as a function of the light shining on the
Measuring 4.60 metres (181.1") in length, 1.90 metres (74.8") in
width and 1.24 metres (48.8") in height, this unique concept car
offers ample space for up to four passengers and their luggage.
Thanks to the consistent lightweight construction strategy applied
on the car, unladen weight according to the DIN standard is limited
to 1,395 kg or 3,076 lb, with the centre of gravity relevant to
motoring comfort and driving dynamics remaining very low.
Considering the wide range of high-performance hybrid drive
components and the high-capacity lithium-polymer battery fitted in
the car, these figures clearly confirm the overall concept of BMW
Vision EfficientDynamics with its great commitment to outstanding
efficiency. In its power-to-weight ratio, the BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics concept car is far superior to all conventional
hybrid cars, achieving the same standard as extremely dynamic sports
cars with a conventional combustion engine.
Carrying a maximum load of 445 kg or 981 lb, this unique 2+2-seater
is fully suited for everyday traffic. Luggage capacity of 150 litres
or 5.3 cu ft, in turn, allows the driver and passengers to
conveniently take along, say, two golf bags. And to meet additional
loading requirements the backrests of the two rear seats may be
tilted down individually to provide extra storage space.
Emotional design through
sculptural shapes and layering technology.
innovative drive concept of this unique car, the design of BMW
Vision EfficientDynamics likewise takes a new approach in combining
functional progress with a most powerful emotional impact.
This has been achieved through the close cooperation of BMW’s Design
and Technical Development Divisions starting at an early point and
continuing consistently throughout the entire development process.
The result is a brand-new vehicle architecture with the drive
components as well as the body and interior elements perfectly
coordinated and matched to one another with maximum flexibility and
individual style. A fully integrated design philosophy also provided
new options in using harmonised design principles connecting the
exterior and the interior and providing an interacting effect
between the two areas.
Sculptural design language giving BMW Vision EfficientDynamics a
fully harmonised, complete look ensures the proportions so typical
of a BMW sports car. The front, side, rear and roof areas, for
example, flow smoothly into one another. Dynamically contoured
surfaces and shapes, in turn, create highly
attractive light and shade effects accentuating the light and
sporting character of the car in a most emotional manner.
Layering technology developed by the BMW Group Design Division acts
as the fundamental guideline in designing the exterior and interior.
Applied for the first time in exterior design, this technology
layers one surface on top of the other, creating very smooth seams
and joints to reduce the number of components and, accordingly, the
weight of the car. As a result, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics meets
the most demanding aerodynamic requirements without using any
additional body elements, simply through the structure of the
surfaces optimised for a smooth flow of air.
Interior: innovative lightweight
construction and unprecedented orientation to the driver.
In the design of the
interior, innovative layering technology provides an unprecedented
symbiosis of function and stylish shapes intentionally reduced to a
minimum, consistently implementing and visualising the lightweight
principle also inside the car.
Specific components such as the central air vent not only serving to
enhance motoring comfort but also acting as part of the cockpit,
perform several functions in one. This multi-functionality is then
presented visibly within the car, the use of particularly
sophisticated materials providing a highly attractive combination of
innovation in technology and quality clear to the eye and the touch
of the surface.
This interaction of lightweight construction and individual
well-being also comes out clearly in the design of the controls and
switches, with a leather band, for example, running round the
aluminium gear selector lever on the centre console.
Materials combining lightweight technology and all the qualities
required are also to be admired all round the cockpit of BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics, giving the car an unusually generous feeling of
space for a 2+2-seater. The body-contoured seats, for example, are
made up of a kevlar shell, a backbone structure, and seat padding
with personalised fillings. Clearly, this combination alone ensures
supreme comfort on minimum weight.
The driver’s and front passenger’s seats are connected fi rmly to
the centre console to form a joint interior “landscape”, while the
rear seats anchored on the floor would appear to be hovering in
space. Natural materials and light colours on the seat upholstery
and all interior linings underline the light, sophisticated and
sustainability-oriented atmosphere within the passenger compartment.
The instrument panel is deliberately padded only where technical
components have to be appropriately covered, thus making an
important contribution to passenger safety in the event of a
collision. The instrument cluster played a fundamental role right
from the start in the design process, serving as the starting point
for all surfaces within the interior and thus creating a
particularly powerful rendition of that driver orientation so
typical of BMW.
Innovative light technology:
providing clear signals to the outside and offering soothing ambient
illumination inside in a unique symbiosis.
LED lights at both the
front and rear end of BMW Vision EfficientDynamics provide an
innovative combination of the symbols so typical of the brand and
clear design language oriented towards trendsetting technology. The
distinctive look of the dual round headlights characteristic of a
BMW is emphasised in particular by the use of LED technology. The
rear lights are integrated also in their function into the design of
the entire rear section, forming part of the rear air defl ector and
thus merging completely into the rear contour.
Extremely fl at and compact, the rear lights are made up of
innovative LED units forming a smooth and consistent red surface
when not in use. Only when used do the respective light chambers
take on their appropriate colour such as yellow on the direction
This innovative light technology also provides an intense symbiosis
of the exterior and interior, again promoting and further refining
the driving experience. This is also why the ambient illumination of
the interior comes with new features and qualities, the light
sources within the passenger compartment being fed from the
positioning lights at the side, the rear lights and the brake
lights, thus changing the atmosphere created by the lights within
the car as a function of driving conditions.
The optical impression conveyed by BMW Vision EfficientDynamics also
results in other areas from the symbiosis of the exterior and
interior, eliminating the conventional barriers between the two. The
lines within the interior, for example, continue on to the
innovative design of the engine compartment lid, while in its shape
the third brake light positioned higher up on the car follows the
structure of the glass roof and tapers to the outside where the
roofline moves down gently to the rear.
Gullwing doors for convenient
access to all seats.
The doors on BMW Vision
EfficientDynamics open up like gullwings, turning on pivots in the
front roof column at the level of the side direction indicators.
Since the car has no B-pillars, the large door cutouts ensure
convenient entry also to the rear seats. The pivots on the doors
also provide the base for the exterior mirrors, thus forming an
ideal combination of function and aesthetic design.
The structure of the doors is also characterised by several layers
of materials on top of one another and the optical and functional
symbiosis of the interior and exterior this technology is able to
offer. Made up of three layers, the overall structure comprises the
outer glass surface, an interim load-bearing layer, and the interior
cover with its particularly smooth shapes and flowing forms clearly
visible to the passengers, layering technology again, therefore,
opening up new perspectives.
The large glass surfaces extending far down on the body also provide
a strong optical impression of the low seating position close to the
road. And at the same time a stable sidebar ensures the body
stiffness and crash safety naturally required on every vehicle.
Flowing to the inside at its central point, this safety element also
serves as an armrest.
This interplay of the three layers also helping to minimise the
weight of the car continues on the trim bar running along the door
and extending out of the armrest, finally fl owing into the outer
door opener on its path from inside to outside.